Treatment is symptomatic. General recommendations for surveillance and management are available.Go To genereviews
Individuals with SAS are at a high risk of having a variety of dental problems. Based on the evaluation of dozens of individuals with SAS, we have developed dedicated dental recommendations.dental care recommendations pdf
SPEECH AND FEEDING
Severe speech delay, apraxia of speech, and feeding difficulties are very common in SAS. We have evaluated over 60 individuals with SAS using a variety of standardized tests allowing us to develop dedicated speech and feeding recommendations.Speech and feeding recommendations pdf
About 20% of individuals with SAS have a history of seizures.¹ Other individuals are known to have abnormal electroencephalograms (EEG) but either subclinical or during sleep and don’t receive the diagnosis of seizures.² A variety of antiepileptic medications have been used with variable success alone or in combination including levetiracetam, valproic acid, oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, or lamotrigine.
Behavioral issues are common in SAS. Difficult behavior, aggressive outbursts, anxiety, and ADHD often necessitate medical management. On a few occasions, antipsychotics have been used, more commonly risperidone. Other psychotropic/antipsychotic medications used on single individuals include valproic acid, haloperidol, sulpiride, quetiapine, chlorprothixene, fluvoxamine, olanzapine, or floropipamide.² Sleeping difficulties have been managed with melatonin alone or in combination with clonidine with some success.
References: 1. Zarate YA, et al. Hum Mutat. 2019; PMID: 31021519. 2. Zarate YA, et al. Am J Med Genet A. 2018; PMID: 29436146.